Advance Refraction& Dispensing & Optics:

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Introduction to clinical refraction Introduction to Apparatus used in clinical refraction  
Functional vision Components ,  
Functional vision Measuring charts  
Visual acuity Distance ,near  
Visual acuity / Pediatric visual acuity Charts parameters  
Trial lens box ·         Lenses

·         Prisms

·         Cylinders

Trial lens box accessories ·         Pin hole

·         Stenopic slit

·         Maddox rod

·         occluder

Refraction Refraction protocol  
Objective refraction Definition , methods Instruments used in objective refraction  
Retinoscopy Static retinoscopy ,Dynamic retionscopy  
Cycloplegic drugs Drugs, use , concentration , mathematical addition  
Objective refraction Retinoscopic Cross, Mathematical calculation ,  
Objective refraction


Final prescription  
Pediatric  objective refraction Procedures , working distance ,calculations  
Simple transposition Rules of simple transposition  
Subjective refraction Subjective verification of refraction  
Steps of subjective refraction    
 cross cylinder ·         Introduction to cross cylinder


cross cylinder ·         Refining of cylinder power

·         Refining of cylindrical axis

Binocular Balancing ·         Introduction to binocular balancing

·         Methods of binocular balancing

·         Significance of binocular balancing

Astigmatic fan Use , significance, disadvantages of Astigmatic Fan  
Duochrome test ·         Procedure of duochrome test

·         Significance of duochrome test

Toric transposition Rules of toric transposition  
Measurment of IPD ·         Introduction to IPD

·         Significance of IPD

·         Measurment of IPD in Squint Patients

Frame selection Facial measurement , frame fit  
Focimetry Optics , use  
Introduction to accommodation Structures of eye performing accommodation

Importance of accommodation

Presbyopia Presbyopia  
Psedophakia Definition, refraction techniques ,  
Aphkia Definition, refraction techniques ,