Summary of Research Projects of Chemical Engineering Disciplines
Production of Biogas from Kitchen Waste
M. Sohail Bashir
A lot of municipal solid waste including vegetable and kitchen waste are daily generated in big cities of the country and their inappropriate management (open dumps and landfills) leads to environmental problem and hazards to inhabitants. Information and research data about biogas plants in developing countries is still very scarce although this not a new technology. The overall goal of this study was first to establish multiple set of biogas production units on a Lab Scale each of about 1 liter capacity. Optimize conditions such as solid –liquid ratio, temperature and time were established for production of biogas. Then a semi pilot scale unit has been fabricated and is being used to verify the results of Lab tests before going into fabrication and installation of a biogas unit to meet biogas need for office use.
Solar Dish Reflector for Water Heating
A significant increase in the use of solar water heaters around the world with solar water heater productions now has become a major industry in quite number of developed countries. Solar water heater are simple solar thermal applications of that convert solar radiation into heat that is used to warm water for bathing, washing, cleaning and cooking. Solar water heating is now recognized as a reliable practice that saves substantial amount of electricity or other conventional fuels, leads to peak load reduction and prevents emission of carbon dioxide. Solar water heaters generally fall into two broad categories concentrating and non concentrating types. The concentrating type of heaters usually employs parabolic concave mirror/concave dish type mirror/reflectors to concentrate the total solar energy incident on the reflector/collector surface. So the collector/reflector surface is usually very wide and temperature achieved is quite high. Parabolic dish has the highest efficiency in terms of utilization of the reflector area. Thus, a dish type reflector of about dia 1.5 fitted with a cooper coil of about 6 inch dia as collector has been constructed and installed. Tests on water heating are being run and study the effect of water flow rate & time on the temperature rise of water using different reflecting surface such as aluminum foil, glass mirror and white paint.
Parabolic solar water heater
Parabolic troughs are used to make super heated steam and generate electricity because their fabrication and tracking equipment is less expensive than the dish. Simple parabolic trougs have been made by cutting the steel drum of one barrel capacity into two equal halves. These two units have been lined one with aluminum foil and other with mirror glass. These two solar reflectors are being studied to collect a meaningful data on the heating of water.
Solar water heater
Solar powered water heating technical appliances are rather simple and much cheaper than photo voltaic systems. Institution like hospitals require a substantial supply of hot water twenty four hour a day because the use of solar radiation is limited to the day hours of sun shine, it is necessary to construct hot water system that collects as much heat as possible during the day time and preserves the collected water heat as much as possible after sun set. For this reason a hot water system has been figured out which is named as thermo siphon system, or the system based on natural circulation. Three solar water heaters with three different solar collectors such as P.V.C pipe, Copper Coil and metal pipes covered with plastic bottles are being tested. The solar heat collection efficiency of these solar collectors is being studied for comparison.