**Credit hours: 4(3-1)**

**Prerequisites: N/A**

**Objectives of the course:**

To provide an understanding of the principles of physics.

**Course Outline:**

Scientific notation and significant figures. Types of errors in experimental measurements. Units in different systems. Graphical Techniques (Log, semi-log and other non-linear graphs)

Electrostatics and Magnetism: Coulombs Law. Electrostatic potential energy of discrete charges. Continuous charge distribution. Gauss’s Law. Electric field around

conductors. Dielectrics. Dual trace oscilloscope with demonstration. Magnetic fields. Magnetic force on current. Hall effect. Biot-Savart Law. Ampere’s Law, Fields of rings and coils. Magnetic dipole. Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism and Ferromagnetism.

Waves and Oscillations: Free oscillation of systems with one and more degrees of freedom. Solution for Modes. Classical wave equation. Transverse modes for continuous string. Standing waves. Dispersion relation for waves. LC network and coupled pendulums. Plasma oscillations.

Semi-Conductors: Energy levels in a semiconductor, Hole concept, Intrinsic and Extrinsic regions, PNP, NPN junction. Transistor, LEDs, Amplifiers Optics and Lasers: Harmonic traveling waves in one dimension. Near and far fields. Two-slit interference. Huygens Principle. Single-slit diffraction. Resolving power of optical instruments. Diffraction Grating. Lasers, Population inversion. Resonant cavities. Quantum efficiency. He-Ne, Ruby and CO2 lasers. Doppler effect and sonic boom.

Modern Physics: Inadequacy of classical physics, Plank’s explanations of black body radiation. Photoelectric effect, Compton effect. Bohr’s theory of Hydrogen atom, Atomic spectra, De-Broglie hypothesis, Braggs Law, Atomic nucleus, Mass energy relation, Exponential decay and half-life. Nuclear stability and radioactivity ,Alpha decay, Beta decay, Gamma decay attenuation, Fission, Energy release, Nuclear Fusion.

**Lab Outline:**

Practical exercises relating to the topics covered in theory.

**Recommended Book:**

- Dale Ewin “Applied Physics” 2009, Prentice Hall, Inc.